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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

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(GAD)

 

Definition

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder marked by chronic, exaggerated worrying and anxiety about everyday life. The worry is so severe that it interferes with their ability to live their lives.
 

Diagnosis

You will be asked about any medications that you are taking, including over-the-counter products, herbs, and supplements. Some medications can cause side effects similar to the symptoms of GAD. You will also be asked about any other substances that you may be using such as nicotine, caffeine, illegal drugs, prescription medications, and alcohol.
To make a diagnosis of GAD, symptoms must:
  • Be present more days than not
  • Be present for at least six months
  • Interfere with your life such as causing you to miss work or school
 

Treatment

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

During cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) , your therapist will work with you to change your patterns of thinking. This will allow you to notice how you react to situations that cause anxiety. You will then learn to change your thinking so you can react differently. This can decrease the symptoms of anxiety.

Behavioral Therapy

Your therapist will teach you relaxation techniques, including deep breathing, muscle relaxation, and visualization. Learning ways to relax can help you gain control over anxiety. Instead of reacting with worry and tension, you can learn to remain calm. Your therapist may also slowly expose you to the situations that cause worry and tension. This can allow you to reduce your anxiety in a safe environment.

Support Groups

Joining a support group or self-help group may be beneficial. This form of support allows you to share your experiences and learn how others have coped with GAD.

Biofeedback

Biofeedback works by attaching sensors to the body. A therapist helps you understand your body’s signals so you can use them to reduce your anxiety.

Medication

Medication can be prescribed for symptoms that are severe and make it difficult to function. Medications can help relieve symptoms so you can concentrate on getting better. It is important to note that many medications cannot be stopped quickly but need to be tapered off. Check with your doctor before discontinuing any medication.
Medications may include:
  • Benzodiazepines —to relax your body and keep it from tensing in response to anxious thoughts
    • Note: These medications need to be monitored closely because they may cause dependence.
  • Buspirone—an anti-anxiety medication that does not cause dependence
  • Antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)—to help control anxious thoughts

Lifestyle Changes

The following lifestyle changes may be helpful:
  • Learn relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga.
  • Avoid tobacco, caffeine, and drugs. These can worsen anxiety.
  • Exercise on a regular basis.
  • Get an appropriate amount of sleep each night.
  • Identify stressful situations. Avoid them when possible.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.

RESOURCES

Anxiety Disorders Association of America
http://www.adaa.org

Mental Health America
http://www.nmha.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Psychiatric Association
http://www.cpa-apc.org

Canadian Psychological Association
http://www.cpa.ca

References


Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Published May 2, 2007. Accessed November 26, 2013.


Anxiety disorders. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.nmha.org/conditions/anxiety-disorders. Accessed November 26, 2013.


Generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 23, 2013. Accessed November 26, 2013.


Generalized anxiety disorder. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/generalized-anxiety-disorder/treatment.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed November 26, 2013.


Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad/index.shtml. Accessed November 26, 2013.


Gliatto MF. Generalized anxiety disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1591-1600. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001001/1591.html. Accessed November 26, 2013.


9/12/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Li AW, Goldsmith CA. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Altern Med Rev. 2012;17(1):21-35.

 

Revision Information

Review Date: 11/2013
  • Update Date: 11/26/2013